Open Search

How To Wind Three-Phase Stators

Publication date: 
March 2008
Type of media: 
Software

Self-paced, interactive training for stators 600 volts or less

The valuable CD-ROM-based interactive training tool is ideal for training your novice(s). Even experienced winders will learn from it. The CD teaches how to wind in a richly detailed, step-by-step approach. It includes narrative, animations and video clips, with tests to assess student comprehension. The training, which is divided into 13 lessons, covers data taking, core testing, coil cutoff, burnout, stripping, core preparation, coil making, stator insulation, coil insertion, internal connections, lacing and bracing, inspection and test of untreated and treated windings, and winding treatment. Features include "Pro Tips" and "Drill Downs" that enhance the learning experience and assure that even the most experienced technician will learn from this product.

Overview Of The Course

The following is an overview of the EASA interactive CD-based training course for rewinding of three phase random wound stators. The course is primarily intended for new winders with little or no winding experience. It can also be used for reinforcement and expansion of more experienced winders knowledge of random winding. Further, many of the techniques and principles used for three phase random windings can also be applied to armatures, wound rotors, field coils, and form coil stator windings.

The CD is interactive, and self-paced. You can repeat each section as many times as you like, until you are comfortable with the material. By practicing the techniques you will learn from the video segments, you will be able to learn to rewind motors more quickly than by using only the traditional “on-the-job training”.

In its simplest form, the three-phase, random wound stator winding process consists of removing an existing winding from a stator and replacing it with a winding that duplicates the original winding performance characteristics. By performance characteristics, we mean the nameplate ratings (e.g., horsepower or kilowatt rating) and speed, of the motor or generator remain the same.


Click images to enlarge

The course consists of the following lessons:

  1. Taking Data
  2. Core Testing
  3. Coil Cutoff
  4. Burnout Procedures
  5. Winding Stripping Procedures
  6. Core Preparation
  7. Coil Making
  8. Winding Insulation and Coil Insertion
  9. Internal Connections
  10. Lacing and Bracing of Windings
  11. Inspection of Untreated Windings
  12. Testing Untreated and Treated Windings
  13. Winding Treatment

The lessons generally progress in the same order as the winding work, though there are some exceptions.

The lessons include narrative, animations and video clips, and tests to assess student comprehension. Other features include "Pro Tips" and "Drill Downs" which are designed to enhance the learning experience.

 
Click images to enlarge

Objectives Of The Course

The primary objectives of this interactive course are to provide the student with necessary information on the methods, materials and tools to properly rewind a three-phase, random wound stator. Further, to teach the student (i.e., the novice winder) the correct steps and procedures to effectively apply this information in the rewinding process. The ultimate objectives are for the student to become an accomplished winder.

For the student to succeed in learning to wind, a necessary complement to the course is actual hands-on winding. A mentor, such as an experienced winder or supervisor, should guide the student through the hands-on winding activity. The mentor can also instruct the student on the practices specific to their service center.

To put the winding curriculum in its full and proper perspective, here we will detail the objectives of each lesson.

Lesson 1: Taking Data

In the first lesson, Taking Data, the key objective is to accurately determine winding data for a three phase stator, including connection, turns, span(s), wire sizes, poles, and grouping; and core and coil dimensions. It is important that the new winding data match the original so that the motor produces the same performance characteristics (e.g., horsepower or kilowatt rating and speed) as prior to rewind, and that the energy efficiency rating is maintained. Further, it is important to note that some of the critical data cannot be determined later in the winding process. For example, if the turns are not counted correctly, they cannot be determined after disposing of the removed winding.


Click images to enlarge

Lesson 2: Core Testing

In the next lesson, Core Testing, the main objectives are how to perform a core test using two different methods, and the materials and equipment needed. Another primary objective is recognizing the importance of, and how to evaluate, the results of core testing. A properly performed core test can detect core degradation prior to rewind. To achieve that, the core should be tested before and after the burnout process. The key here is to avoid inserting a new winding into a defective core, then having to repair the core and repeat the rewind process, or worse, having to scrap the stator core. After performing some core tests, the student should have a better understanding of how much time and potential cost can be saved by performing core tests before and after winding removal. Also, by performing the core testing, the student will have a higher level of confidence that the stator core is in satisfactory condition for rewinding.

Lesson 3: Coil Cutoff

The critical objective of the Coil Cutoff lesson is to be able to cut off coil extensions without injury to the technician or the stator. Essentially the idea is to cut the copper wire, not any other metal part of the stator, and to do it in a manner that does not harm the stator or the person performing the task. Proper cutting of the coil extensions also reduces time and effort when pulling the coils out.

Lesson 4: Burnout Procedures

Following the cutting off of the coils, the next step is Burnout. Important objectives of the lesson on the Burnout process are to understand how the burnout oven works in a temperature-controlled manner, and how to operate and properly load the oven. The burnout oven breaks down the winding insulation, to facilitate winding removal. A key aspect of the burnout process is for the student to recognize that control of the part temperature is much more critical to the process than simply controlling chamber temperature. Also in this lesson the student will learn the potential risks associated with an improperly loaded oven.

Lesson 5: Winding Stripping Procedures

The next step in the rewind process is Winding Stripping. Primary objectives in this lesson are understanding and using winding removal methods and equipment to remove the old winding safely, and avoiding damage to the stator core. Because stripping methods and equipment vary, the mentor should provide the student with specific instructions on winding stripping in their service center. Closely associated with Winding Stripping is Taking Data, as much of the important data is obtained during the stripping process, e.g., connection, turns, span(s), wire sizes, poles, and grouping. Note that this is a return to the data taking lesson that began the winding process.

Lesson 6: Core Preparation

After removal of the windings and insulation, the bare core must be made ready for winding insertion. Key objectives in Core Preparation are how to clean, inspect and prepare the bare core; and how to repair lamination damage and defects. This step assures that the core is in satisfactory condition prior to actual rewinding, and is associated with the Core Testing lesson. The prepared core is core tested to verify that core losses have not increased from the initial core test by an unacceptable amount. The repeated core test reinforces the aspects of the core test for the student, and provides a learning opportunity for the student to calculate the before versus after parameter comparisons.

Lesson 7: Coil Making

All of the steps and associated lessons to this point have dealt with existing windings and stator components. The first step in actual rewinding is Coil Making; that is, creating new coils from new magnet wire and other materials. The primary objectives of Coil Making are recognizing the materials, tools and equipment needed; and how to make random wound coils to be installed into a three-phase stator core. The student will learn that the new coils must have equivalent turns and wire area as the original winding, and have the same physical features such as coil extensions. Coil making equipment varies considerably; therefore the mentor should provide the student with specific instructions on the use of the coil winding equipment in their service center.

Lesson 8: Winding Insulation and Coil Insertion

Having made new coils, they need to be inserted into the core, bringing up the next step, Winding Insulation and Coil Insertion. The objectives of this lesson are to be able to determine the materials and tools needed; and how to install random-wound coils into a three-phase stator core. There are actually multiple steps in this process, dealing with insulating and inserting. The slots are insulated, then coils inserted, followed by insulating between coils. The student will also learn how to recognize a properly inserted set of coils.

Lesson 9: Internal Connections

Even though the winding coils have been made and inserted correctly, the winding will not perform properly if it is not connected correctly. This is accomplished in the next step, Internal Connections. In addition to requiring physical accuracy and attention to detail, the student will learn the steps necessary to “lay out” and verify the accuracy of the connection. Critical objectives of this lesson are how to identify and lay out winding connections, and the procedures for actually connecting the winding. The student will also gain an appreciation for the unlimited variety of possible winding connections and layouts.

Lesson 10: Lacing and Bracing of Windings

The inserted winding coils should be snug in the slots, but will need reinforcement to reduce the tendency to move or shift. Varnish treatment and curing will do much to make the winding more rigid; however, there is another key step to be used to reinforce winding coils. That is Lacing and Bracing of Windings, with the main objectives being to make the winder proficient in the methods, materials and procedures for lacing and bracing of windings. The student will also learn how to determine the amount and type of bracing to use on different windings.

Lesson 11: Inspection of Untreated Windings

The next action step for the winding is to treat and cure it. This step is essentially irreversible. That is, the treated winding cannot easily be modified if, for example, the connection is incorrect or there is a ground fault. Therefore the next steps in the winding sequence are to inspect and to test the untreated winding. The primary objective of Inspection of Untreated Windings is how to properly inspect and evaluate an inserted and untreated three-phase random winding for defects or imperfections. Upon completion of this lesson the student will be able to detect visual indications of unsatisfactory winding condition versus acceptable appearance.

Lesson 12: Testing Untreated and Treated Windings

Following inspection the companion critical objectives of Testing of Untreated and Treated Windings are how to perform and evaluate testing of untreated, and of treated, three-phase random windings. The student receives information on the applicable tests, how to perform them, and how to evaluate the results.

Lesson 13: Winding Treatment

Following inspection and testing of the untreated winding we move on to the final step in the winding process, Winding Treatment. This step is crucial to providing a winding with good heat transfer, high bond strength, and protection against contamination. The key objectives of Winding Treatment are to make the winder knowledgeable and proficient in the equipment and materials to varnish treat and cure windings; and the methods and procedures to varnish treat, cure and evaluate the finished three-phase random winding. The actual final step is testing the treated winding, described above.

Summary

To summarize, it is worth restating the first paragraphs on the course objectives. The primary objectives of this interactive course are to provide the student with necessary information on the methods, materials and tools to properly rewind a three-phase random wound stator. Further, to teach the student (i.e., the novice winder) the correct steps and procedures to effectively apply this information in the rewinding process. The ultimate objectives are for the student to become an accomplished winder, able to rewind all the different types of windings seen in the service center (e.g., random wound stators, form coil stators, random and form wound rotors, random and form armatures, and field coils).

For the student to succeed in learning to wind, a necessary complement to the course is actual hands-on winding. A mentor, such as an experienced winder or supervisor, should guide the student through the hands-on winding activity. The mentor can also instruct the student on the practices specific to their service center.

Glossary

The course also includes an extensive glossary to help the student understand the terminology, much of which may not be familiar to them.

Examples of glossary terms:

  • Circuits
  • Coil extensions
  • Coil group
  • Consequent pole connection
  • Core loss
  • Delta connection
  • Jumpers
  • Salient pole connection
  • Slot fill
  • Slot liner
  • Turns per coil
  • Unequal turns
  • Wires in multiple
  • Wye connection
Topic(s): 
AC motors
Stators/windings
Lacing/bracing
Laminations
Random wound
Winding connections
Winding insulation
Dip & bake
VPI
Nameplates
Repair procedures and tips
Service center equipment
Motor testing
Training
Ventilation/cooling
Wire